Math form Words

Chapter Four - Processes

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**Definition** - A *label* is a name.

**Definition** - The term *next* is synonymous with the phrase *immediately subsequent*.

**Definition** - P is a *procedure* if and only if each following statement is true:

P is a collection of labeled statements.

Exactly a single statement in P is labeled *Start*.

Optionally, the Start statement may name a source or sources of input to procedure P.

Every statement in P specifies a single action or more than a single action to be done.

The statement in P that is labeled *Start* specifies the actions that are to be done initially.

Procedure P names the labeled statement to be done next with the sentence or phrase "X is next" or "Otherwise, Y is next", where X or Y is the label of the statement to be done next; or instead, the current statement may end P by ending with the word *END*.

Any statement in P may start or resume another previously defined procedure, Q, by stating the sentence or phrase "X in procedure Q is next." where X is a label in Q.

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In case it is not clear, naming a thing is an action.

**Definition** - Set D is *a copy of set E* if and only if D differs from E in its name, and only in its name.

**Definition** - A pair of sets, p and q, have a *one-to-one correspondence* with each other if and only if when p and q are the inputs to the *1 to 1 procedure*, this procedure is ended by its statement labeled RY.

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**1 to 1 Procedure** - The procedure named *1 to 1* is a procedure that tests whether a pair of sets, p and q, have a one-to-one correspondence with each other.

Input - Sets p and q are the inputs of the 1 to 1 procedure.

Start - Sets p and q are the inputs to the this procedure.

AA - If p is empty and q is empty, RY is next. Otherwise, CT is next.

CT - If p is empty, and q is not empty, RX is next. Otherwise, CD is next.

CD - If p is not empty and q is empty, RX is next. Otherwise, BX is next.

BX - Remove a single element from p, and remove a single element from q. AA is next.

RX - End.

RY - End.

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**Proof 1**

Given that p and q have a one-to-one correspondence with each other, either both p and q are both empty; or for each element removed from p by the 1 to 1 procedure, exactly a single element is removed from q by this procedure.

Given that q and r have a one-to-one correspondence with each other, either both q and r are both empty, or for each element removed from q by the 1 to 1 procedure, exactly a single element is removed from r by this procedure.

In such a case, either p, q, and r are each empty, or for each element removed from p by the 1 to 1 procedure, exactly a single element is removed from q, and exactly a single element is removed from r by this procedure.

Therefore, if sets p and q have a one-to-one correspondence with each other, and sets q and r have a one-to-one correspondence with each other, then set p and r have a one-to-one correspondence with each other.

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