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Food 2100
Introduction


      New and rarely used food processing methods together with additional varieties of food will become commonplace by the year 2100. This will be motivated by public health and cost savings to consumers. It will also be motivated by the enormous economic opportunities for businesses large and small that these new foods and methods represent.

      Some changes will happen earlier than 2100 where customer demand and especially attractive market opportunities exist.

      It has become technologically feasible to control aroma, texture, and taste while providing a new level of protection from toxins and all unwanted substances. These important improvements are compelled by scientific facts that are known today.

      So far, this might seem like an introduction to artificial food. This is not the case.

      Any nutrient that is made by a living plant is a natural nutrient. Mixing natural nutrients to make a more complete food does not produce an artificial food any more than mixing foods in a recipe produces an artificial food. An artificial nutrient is not made in a living plant and is usually not chemically identical in every respect to a nutrient made in a living plant.

      The aim of the new methods is to produce healthier food, free of toxins, having greater variety, and even being less expensive.


Separating and Recombining Nutrients


      Whole foods, such as lettuce, eggs, meat, beans, and the other typical food offerings of a grocery store, each contain a number of nutrients together with other substances. They are mainly comprised of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, proteins, water, dietary fiber, lipids, and the DNA of the life forms from which the whole foods were harvested. The digestive process routinely converts the proteins into their constituent amino acids. We do not eat foods to obtains protein. We eat foods containing protein in order to obtain amino acids. Consuming the DNA is harmless and it's beneficial only in rare cases. The digestive process obtains DNA bases from the DNA. This does nothing for normal individuals.

      The substances obtained by the digestive process that have any value at all include the following: vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, amino acids, water, dietary fiber, lipids, and DNA bases. Each of these nutrients can be obtained from any of a huge variety of life forms. For example, any particular amino acid is exactly the same biochemical compound whether extracted from green pepper, seaweed, egg, wheat, or from any other living thing on Earth.

      The amino acids are alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine. There are 20. Some are synthesized by the human body, but all are good to eat.

      The nitrogen bases of DNA are consumed whenever animal meat or plants are in the diet. These nitrogen bases of DNA are rarely needed. The body normally makes these bases in sufficient quantity. They are adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine.

      There are a great many sources of these nutrients. The combinations of these nutrients are truly enormous.

      The aim of the new food technology is to extract nutrients (not protein but rather amino acids, and not DNA but rather the nitrogen bases of the DNA) and combine them without toxins or other unwanted substances to form novel foods.


The Importance of Addressing Toxicity


      Not all food toxicity is a product of the modern era. Elements are made in stars. For billions of years, the gravity of the earth has been pulling in the dust and rock produced by exploding stars. The elements made in starts have been falling into the sea and onto the land since well before there were animals and plants on Earth.

      There have been efforts to address the food toxicity produced by pollution and pesticides, but there has been no discernible effort to address the massive toxicity introduced to our food plants from natural soil. In fact, all of the toxins consumed by individuals are routinely recycled by using manure as a fertilizer to feed our food plants. New ways of making fertilizer must be developed, and we know how.

      Except for technetium (atomic number 43) and promethium (atomic number 61), elements up to atomic number 92 (uranium) are widely distributed. Technetium and promethium are exceedingly rare because they have no stable isotopes and quickly decay to become other elements. Elements having an atomic number greater than 92 are very rare in nature. Of the remaining 90 elements, six of them are inert gasses that exclude themselves from the chemistry of plants and animals. Of the remaining 84 elements, 28 are known to be needed by the human body, but at least 61 are found in almost every person. The number of unneeded elements that we consume outnumber the ones we need. They are responsible for many late-onset medical problems. Although the amounts of these unneeded elements are small, they do us harm. Some of these toxic elements accumulate, never leaving the body.

      Cadmium is a very toxic element. However little cadmium we may eat every day, it accumulates year after year. In recent times, we are eating more cadmium because the dumping of cadmium in the ocean has caused a major fraction of phytoplankton (the subspecies called diatoms) to incorporate cadmium in their system to ward off other microorganisms. This affect us because phytoplankton is the foundation of the food chain in the ocean. Everything that lives in the ocean either eats phytoplankton or eats something that eats phytoplankton. Because fish and whales and lobsters and all of the other sea life fail to discriminate between diatoms and the other phytoplankton, every living thing in the ocean contains far too much cadmium.

      Another serious problem has more recently come about. Sea salt was given a measure of status by selling it at high prices in health food stores. Then it began to appear in soup, nuts, and other packaged food at a cost no higher than that of table salt. The motive to promote and use sea salt is simple. Sea salt costs the food producer less than the cost of refined table salt. No refinement process is needed. This took deliberate planning and has many people singing praises for sea salt obtained from numerous exotic locations. Meanwhile, this sea salt contains every water-soluble compound that can be formed from elements that have fallen into the sea.

      Uranium forms six water-soluble chlorides in the ocean. They are in sea salt. These uranium compounds substitute for calcium compounds in the body as we eat them. They accumulate in the bones. They are mildly radioactive. The are responsible for a small fraction of cancers. 61 minus 28 is 33. That is the number of elements that form compounds in your blood that do you no good. In my opinion, this is a crime.

      Fixing these problems is not rocket science. It's politics.

      Addressing toxicity is important because we wish to improve the health of the entire population. Too much is made of our differing genes. The mere fact that some people differ in their ability to ward off late onset medical problems better than others ignores the fact that such defenses become equally effective whenever there is no assault.


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            Feed Your Plants
            What You Can Eat

      The compounds that are safe to eat are all comprised of these elements: Hydrogen, Lithium, Boron, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Sodium, Magnesium, Silicon, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Chlorine, Potassium, Calcium, Vanadium, Chromium, Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, Copper, Zinc, Arsenic, Selenium, Bromine, Molybdenum, Tin, and Iodine.

      In order of their atomic number, here are the elements together with some of the compounds that will work for your garden:

      5 - B - Boron - sodium borate (Na2B4O7·10H2O), boric acid (H3BO3), anhydrous borax (Na2B4O7), borax pentahydrate (Na2B4O7·5H2O), borax decahydrate (Na2B4O7·10H2O), calcium borate (Ca3(BO3)2)

6 - C - Carbon - carbon dioxide (CO2)

7 - N - Nitrogen - ammonia (NH3), ammonium phosphate ((NH4)3PO4), urea (CO(NH2)2), ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4).
The ultimate source of nitrogen is N2 in the atmosphere. Some microorganisms on land and in lakes and oceans can fix atmospheric nitrogen to make nitrogen-bearing minerals available to other life forms.

8 - O - Oxygen - water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2)

11 - Na - Sodium - sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium silicate (Na2SiO3), sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), sodium decahydrate (Na2SO4·10H2O), sodium phosphate (Na3PO4),

12 - Mg - Magnesium - magnesium chloride (MgCl2), magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), epsom salt = epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O)

14 - Si - Silicon - silicic acid = orthosilicic acid (Si(OH)4), metasilicic acid (H2SiO3), disilicic acid (H2Si2O5), pyrosilicic acid (H6Si2O7)
These have been identified only in very dilute aqueous solution.
See this article, and this article.

15 - P - Phosphorus - ammonium phosphate ((NH4)3PO4), sodium phosphate (Na3PO4), potassium phosphate (K3PO4), urea phosphate (CO(NH2)2·H3PO4).

16 - S - Sulfur - ferrous sulfate (FeSO4), potassium sulfate (K2SO4), potassium magnesium sulfate (K2SO4·2MgSO4), langbeinite (K2Mg2(SO4)3), zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnSO4·7H2O), manganese sulfate (MnSO4), manganese sulfate hydrate, cupric sulphate (CuSO4), cobalt(II) sulfate (CoSO4), nickel sulfate (NiSO4), nickel sulfate hexahydrate (NiSO4·6H2O), sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), sodium decahydrate (Na2SO4·10H2O), tin(II) sulfate (SnSO4), vanadyl(IV) sulfate, (VOSO4), ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4).

17 - Cl - Chlorine - sodium chloride (NaCl)

19 - K - Potassium - potassium carbonate (K2CO3), potassium chloride (KCl), potassium sulfate (K2SO4), potassium magnesium sulfate (K2SO4·2MgSO4), langbeinite (K2Mg2(SO4)3), caustic potash or potash lye or potassium hydroxide (KOH), potassium chlorate (KClO3), potassium nitrate (KNO3), potassium permanganate (KMnO4), potassium phosphate (K3PO4)

20 - Ca - Calcium - calcium chloride (CaCl2),

23 - V - Vanadium - vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), vanadium chloride (VCl3), vanadyl(IV) sulfate, (VOSO4)

24 - Cr - Chromium - chromium chloride (CrCl2)

25 - Mn - Manganese - manganese sulfate (MnSO4), manganese sulfate hydrate (MnSO4·xH2O), manganese(II) chloride (MnCl2), manganese(II) chloride (MnCl2·H2O), manganese(II) chloride (MnCl2·2H2O), manganese(II) chloride (MnCl2·4H2O)

26 - Fe - Iron - ferric chloride (FeCl3), ferrous sulfate (FeSO4)

27 - Co - Cobalt - cobalt (II) chloride (CoCl2), cobalt(II) nitrate (Co(NO3)2), cobalt(II) sulfate (CoSO4)

28 - Ni - Nickel - nickel(II) chloride = nickel chloride (NiCl2), nickel chloride hydrate NiCl2·6H2O, nickel sulfate (NiSO4), nickel sulfate hexahydrate (NiSO4·6H2O)

29 - Cu - Copper - copper chloride (CuCl2), cupric sulfate (CuSO4), cuprous chloride (CuCl),

30 - Zn - Zinc - zinc chloride (ZnCl2), zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnSO4·7H2O), zinc nitrate (Zn(NO3)2), zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO3)2·6H2O)

33 - As -Arsenic

According to this site the following is known about arsenic:

Studies in animal species provide strong evidence that arsenic is an essential trace element - at least for birds and mammals. When researchers completely eliminated arsenic from the diets of animals in experiments, the animals became ill; some developed reproductive problems. The offspring of these arsenic-deprived adults were born with developmental problems. Putting a small amount of arsenic back into the animals' diets completely reversed these effects.

Dietary requirements for arsenic in humans are still controversial. There are trace amounts of arsenic in almost all food and water, air and soil, so it is difficult to find humans who are isolated from all sources of arsenic. There are no known human health effects of arsenic deficiency, if such exist, and the effects observed in arsenic-deficient animals would be hard to detect and characterize in humans. Most investigators believe that it is likely that we receive all the arsenic we need from a normal diet, and there is currently no recommendation for a daily dietary intake for humans.

34 - Se - Selenium - sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), selenium dioxide (SeO2), selenium trioxide (SeO3)

35 - Br - Bromine - methyl bromide (CH3Br),

See this link.

42 - Mo - Molybdenum - sodium molybdate (Na2MoO4), sodium molybdate dihydrate (Na2MoO4·2H2O), potassium molybdate (K2MoO4)

50 - Sn - Tin - potassium stannate anydrous (K2SnO3), potassium stannate trihydrate (K2SnO3·3H2O), sodium stannate anhydrous (Na2SnO3), sodium stannate trihydrate (Na2SnO3·3H2O), tin(II) chloride = stannous chloride (SnCl2), tin(II) fluoride = stannous fluoride (SnF2), tin(II) sulfate (SnSO4)

53 - I - Iodine - potassium iodide (KI), sodium iodide (NaI)

      Although essential, some of these elements are heavy metals which must be eaten in small amounts. See the article Heavy metals and metalloids: Sources, risks and strategies to reduce their accumulation in horticultural crops found in the journal Scientia Horticulturae. The journal homepage is here:

www.elsevier.com/locate/scihorti



                Phytoplankton

      In the ocean, a microscopic plant called phytoplankton converts seawater and sunlight into food. Every life form in the oceans of the world either eats phytoplankton directly, or eats life forms that that are in the food chain that is ultimately sustained by phytoplankton. Phytoplankton makes food from seawater and sunlight and by that means provides food for everything alive in the sea. Phytoplankton is said to be the bottom of the food chain in the oceans.

      Phytoplankton is exquisitely productive. If protected from its predators, it can survive in high concentrations with undiminished efficiency in its conversion of seawater and sunlight sustaining its own population. A managed seawater pond or segregated area of the sea can easily produce 50 times as much food per square meter per year as does rice on land. See Dardeau et al. (1992), Verity et al. (1993), and Dawes (1998).

      Phytoplankton is food. It contains 18 of the 20 amino acids. Like all life forms, it contains vitamins, minerals, lipids, and carbohydrates. Cultivating phytoplankton goes a long way toward supplying the nutrients that the human body needs.

      To go the whole distance, other sources must also be cultivated, but there is no doubt that farming phytoplankton can reduce the cost of obtaining a large fraction of what we need.



                        Protein

      The reason for eating amino acids separated from proteins instead of getting them the old fashioned way (eating proteins) is simple. Not all proteins are good for you. An extreme example of a protein that you can't afford to eat is a prion. Prions have an unusual ability, as far as proteins go. The multiply in your digestive system and they give you made cow disease. Fortunately, we are well protected from this threat by means of screening cattle. The other proteins are not so well watched. We needs to appreciate the purpose for which these proteins are made. Each of them are made for the benefit of the life form that created it. Proteins are not made to accommodate our needs. We destroy them (or attempt to) by digesting them by means of hydrolysis.

      Perhaps someone has a database of proteins that irritate or injure some fraction of the population, but it hasn't been front-page news. I think that the reasoning is "Why scare 'em if you can't protect 'em." This seems wise, since long before 2100, there will be amino acids available at a cost competitive with common sources of protein.



                       Diabetes

      Many doctors report that their patients have their type-two diabetes under control, but very few report a complete cure. This should be the aim. Current food tastes and food marketing have created an epidemic of type-two diabetes. In the interest of reversing this as soon as possible rather than waiting for future food, this article outlines what to do to get rid of type-two diabetes entirely.

      Type-two diabetes is preceded by pre diabetes, often for a period of ten years but sometimes for only three years. During this time, the pancreas produces abnormally high levels of insulin in an attempt to contend with blood glucose levels that are too high. If overeating continues long enough, the pancreas becomes fatty and clogged. Thereafter it fails to produce sufficient amounts of insulin.

      During pre diabetes, insulin resistance may also occur. It is a condition in which cells fail to respond normally to insulin. Cells resistant to the insulin are unable to use it effectively. Exercise is very important in addressing insulin insensitivity as an abstract describes here.

      The link below reports research done by Professor Roy Taylor of Newcastle University and presented at an American Diabetes Association conference. It shows that an extremely low-calorie diet prompts the body to remove the fat clogging the pancreas, and that it is this clogging that prevents the pancreas from delivering insulin. A 600 calorie diet for three months was used to remove fat from the pancreas.

      Low-calorie diet offers hope of cure for type 2 diabetes

      Here is a link to some of his continuing research:

      Newcastle Magnetic Resonance Centre

      A 600 calorie diet for three months will often cure recently diagnosed patients, but this is a brutal regimen that is designed for the timely proof that medical researchers desire. A permanent and sustainable diet of the right kind can be just as effective, and is less likely to yield only temporary results.

      I cured myself of type-two diabetes through vigorous exercise and an effective diet. I lost 115 pounds. I made use of regular blood tests to discover the effects of various foods, and also decided to eat only the food that was widely available prior to 10,000 years ago. This was when the domestication of plants and animals began.

      First to be excluded from my diet was refined-sugar products such as candy, cake, cookies, pastry, ice cream, sherbet, jello, pudding, fruit pies, doughnuts, fruit juices, milk shakes, soda, and alcohol. If you never eat sugar at all, you will soon stop wanting it.

      The day that I was diagnosed with type-two diabetes, I had a blood clot removed. Because of that, I was prescribed a blood thinner that required a weekly blood test to regulate the amount of blood thinner I would take. This gave me an opportunity to experiment. I became suspicious of cheese. It was certainly a modern food. I ate a slice or two of cheese every day for a week between blood tests. Then, I would have no cheese for a week until the next blood test. I would alternate cheese weeks with non-cheese weeks for at least two months. I found that cheese seemed to make me need more blood thinner. I would like to see a better controlled experiment conducted, but, in any case, I quit eating cheese.

      I eventually quit all dairy products and eggs. They had little usage among adults before the domestication of animals. Butter and margarine are, of course, too modern.

      In Roman times, government farms produced a lot of wheat for their armies, but centuries before, grains were not produced in gardens, much less produced or found in large quantities. There were no fields of single-grain crops.

      Grains are such a dense store of fuel that only people who work as hard as coal miners can stay thin while using them as a major source of sustenance. I excluded wheat, rye, corn, rice, and all grains, along with bread, toast, pasta, breakfast cereals, snack chips, crackers, and popcorn. For the same reason, I also excluded all high-carbohydrate vegetables such as potatoes and lentils. By the way, the potato was discovered by Europeans only by the 1500's.

      I stopped consuming beef, pork, lamb, and processed meats such as bologna, pepperoni, salami, hot dogs, and sausage. For the last 10,000 years, beef, pork, and lamb have been traded on the basis of weight. The selection and breeding of the live stock caused the meat to become marbled with fat. After loosing 70 pounds, I still had high cholesterol and took medications for it. I was able to quit these medications only after excluding from my diet beef, pork, lamb, and the products made from them. Of course, I have excluded bacon which is a particularly fatty cut of pork.

      This might seem like it doesn't leave much to eat, but it does.

      I drink mostly distilled water. Besides water, my diet currently consists of nuts, chicken, turkey, mushrooms, tomatoes, tomato juice, tomato paste, spaghetti sauce (without pasta), carrots, green beans, beets, artichokes, green peppers, cucumbers, zucchini, turnips, lettuce, asparagus, cauliflower, onions, Italian salad dressing, pickles, olives, mustard, cinnamon, salt, basil, thyme, oregano, mint, garlic, canola oil, green tea, and black coffee. I feel no deprivation.

      The only fruit I eat routinely is tomato. The seeds of high-sugar fruits were spread by birds all over the world. This had very little to do with humanity until modern times. If you are convinced that there is a health benefit in some component of high-sugar fruit, I would recommend that you buy the extract and leave the sugar in the store.

      When hunger strikes between meals, it just takes a few unsalted mixed nuts to stops my hunger. This does not add much to my weight. Peanut butter and almond butter worked less well for this purpose.

      Weight monitoring and blood tests seem essential. The foregoing diet has been described only qualitatively. Activity level, age, and health constraints need to be taken into account in order to decide on the balance of food items that is best for you. Chicken, turkey, mushrooms, nuts, tomatoes, beets, green peppers, lettuce, artichokes, and onions outweigh the remainder of what I eat. I exclude all seafood because it contains cadmium. The bottom of the food chain in the ocean has come to depend upon cadmium. See this article.

      Your blood sugar is under control if your long term A1C blood test is between 6.1 and 6.9. Lower numbers are better. My A1C is 4.8. Soon after my diagnosis, I was taking 90 units of insulin per day. Now I need none.

      After losing 70 pounds, I seemed to stop losing weight no matter how little I ate. Many people experience this. It is because the metabolism of the body is reduced as a protection against starvation. This makes sense historically, however, in a food-rich environment you need to simply force your metabolism to resume normally so that you can continue to lose weight until you reach your ideal weight. This is done by swimming or bathing in cold water for at least half and hour per day. The water effectively drains heat from your body while your metabolism is forced to maintain a body temperature of 98.6 degrees fahrenheit. This directly raises you metabolism. The metabolism stays elevated to nearly normal levels for a longer time than you spend in the cold - sometimes much longer. The effect can be quite evident. You will certainly feel less lethargic. This will help you to continue effecting your weight-loss plan.

      Life is always better when you can manage your stress. This applies to weight loss as well. Stress can cause more of your food to become fat, and can even direct where the fat is placed in your body, as explained at this site.

      The hardest part of the diet is dealing with people. We have about one holiday a month. Cookies, cupcakes, candy, apple pie, pastry, ice cream, and many other forms of sugar are brought out as an obligation of some sort. The trick is to keep your friends without eating their food.



                    Dietary Fiber

      Work of dietary fiber has already begun in earnest. A good introduction to the subject and key terms is this Wikipedia article.

      Scientist have been evaluating formulas for both soluble (in water) dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber for quite some time. Cellulose is an ingredient in virtually all of them.

      Cellulose itself is not digested as food except in rare families and then only to a very minor extent. Dietary fiber is that part of plants that resists the digestive process and pass through the alimentary canal.

      The characteristics of the various formulations are studied in rats. Here are a couple of examples:

Example 1

Example 2

      The next two links show that dietary fiber is very much involved with health issues:

Example 3

Example 4

      Progress is being made currently to provide food processing that controls texture. Producing large quantities of dietary fiber of many kinds will soon be a business with a noticeable participation rate.